Hatha Yoga. The Balance of Body and Mind

El Hatha Yoga es la rama del yoga más practicada en todo el mundo.

In an increasingly fast-paced and demanding world, finding moments of peace and balance has become an imperative need. Stress, anxiety and disconnection from our essence affect our physical and mental health, as well as our personal and professional relationships. Fortunately, there are tools that allow us to face these challenges and improve our quality of life. Among them, Hatha Yoga stands as one of the most recognized and appreciated practices by those who seek to reconnect with their inner self and experience a true transformation.

In this article, we will explore in depth this branch of Yoga and the benefits it offers for the body and mind.

Brief history of Hatha Yoga

Historia del Hatha Yoga o Yoga físico.

Hatha Yoga is one of the most widely known and practiced styles of yoga around the world. Its origins date back to ancient India, where it was developed over two thousand years ago as a form of physical and spiritual discipline. The word “Hatha” comes from the Sanskrit “Ha“, meaning sun, and “Tha“, meaning moon, representing the balance between the opposing energies of body and mind.

It began to take shape in medieval times, around the eleventh century, with the appearance of the first texts on the practice, such as the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Gheranda Samhita. These treatises describe the techniques of Hatha Yoga, including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama) and purification techniques (shatkarmas), aimed at purifying and strengthening the body and mind.

It experienced a surge in popularity in the Western world throughout the 20th century, thanks to yoga masters and gurus such as Swami Sivananda, B.K.S. Iyengar and Pattabhi Jois, who brought their teachings and practices to the West. In addition, the growing awareness of the importance of health and wellness, as well as the search for a deeper connection to the inner self and spirituality, have fueled the popularity of Hatha Yoga in the West.

The popularity of Hatha Yoga in the Western world has also led to increased interest in yogic philosophy, Ayurvedic medicine and meditation practices. In addition, there has been a growing demand for well-trained and certified yoga practitioners to teach and guide students in their Hatha Yoga practice.

The growth in popularity of Hatha Yoga in the West has also generated a number of scientific research and studies that support the benefits of regular yoga practice on physical and mental health. These studies have shown that Hatha Yoga can be effective in the treatment and management of various medical conditions, such as chronic pain, hypertension, anxiety and depression, which has led to the integration of yoga into conventional health care and wellness approaches.

Objectives and benefits of Hatha Yoga

Beneficios del Hatha Yoga.

The main objective of Hatha Yoga is to achieve balance between the body and mind, creating harmony and unity in the individual. This is achieved through the practice of asana, pranayama and meditation, which work together to improve strength, flexibility, endurance, concentration and mental calmness.

The benefits of Hatha Yoga are numerous for both physical, mental and emotional health. Some of the benefits we can highlight include:

  • Improved strength and flexibility: Regular asana practice strengthens and tones muscles, improves posture and increases flexibility of the joints and spine.
  • Reduced stress and anxiety: Hatha Yoga promotes relaxation and mental calm, helping to relieve stress and anxiety.
  • Increased energy and vitality: Pranayama and asanas help improve blood circulation and oxygenation, which increases energy and vitality.
  • Emotional and mental stabilization: Regular practice of Hatha Yoga helps to balance emotions and improve mental health.
  • Improved concentration and focus: The meditation and mindfulness techniques in Hatha Yoga help improve mental concentration and focus.

The practice of Hatha Yoga

Los asanas o esquemas corporales son la base del Hatha Yoga.


Asanas are physical postures that are held for a period of time, allowing the practitioner to explore and develop body awareness and mental concentration. The regular practice of asanas in Yoga has multiple health benefits, such as improving flexibility, increasing muscle strength, reducing stress and promoting relaxation. Some of the most common asanas in Hatha Yoga include Tadasana (mountain pose), Adho Mukha Svanasana (downward facing dog pose), Balasana (child’s pose) and Savasana (corpse pose).

There are certain fundamental principles that should be kept in mind when practicing asanas:

  • Conscious breathing: Breathing is a fundamental aspect of asana practice. The practitioner should breathe deeply and consciously, synchronizing the breath with the movement and keeping attention on the flow of air. Conscious breathing helps to calm the mind, improve concentration and increase vital energy.
  • Alignment: Proper alignment is essential to avoid injury and get the maximum benefit from each asana. When performing a posture, the practitioner should ensure that his or her body is correctly aligned, distributing the weight evenly and paying attention to the body’s signals to avoid overexertion.
  • Stability and comfort: When practicing asanas, it´s important to find a balance between stability and comfort. This means that the practitioner should hold the posture in a stable manner, but without placing unnecessary strain on the muscles or joints. Comfort in the posture allows for greater connection with the breath and relaxation.
  • Gradual progression: It´s essential to progress in asana practice gradually and consciously, respecting the limits of the body and allowing strength and flexibility to develop over time. Patience and consistency are key to avoiding injury and enjoying a sustainable and rewarding practice over time.
  • Mind-body connection: The ultimate goal of asana is to cultivate the mind-body connection. By focusing attention on posture, breath and internal sensations, the practitioner can develop greater self-awareness and experience a sense of harmony and balance in their daily life.

It´s important to remember that each body is unique and asanas may need to be adapted or modified according to individual needs. Variations and adaptations in asana practice may include the use of props, such as yoga blocks, blankets and straps, to facilitate the execution of the postures and ensure a safe and accessible practice for all.


El pranayama o control de la respiración en el Hatha Yoga.

Pranayama is one of the essential practices in Hatha Yoga and focuses on the control and regulation of the breath as a means of balancing and revitalizing the body and mind. The word “pranayama” comes from Sanskrit and is composed of two parts: “prana“, which refers to vital energy, and “ayama“, which means control or extension. Therefore, Pranayama can be understood as the science of breathing and the mastery of the vital force.

In Hatha Yoga, as well as in other types of yoga, Pranayama occupies an important place, as it´s considered a bridge between body and mind, and an indispensable tool to achieve a state of harmony and well-being. The practice of Pranayama is based on the principle that conscious and controlled breathing can improve the physical, emotional and spiritual health of the practitioner.

Pranayama is based on four main stages:

  • Puraka: Inhalation
  • Antar Kumbhaka: Breath retention after inhalation
  • Rechaka: Exhalation
  • Bahir Kumbhaka: Retention of the breath after exhalation

These stages are carried out systematically and consciously, allowing the practitioner to develop increasing mastery over his or her breath and vital energy. In addition, as greater skill in Pranayama is acquired, more advanced and specific techniques can be employed to address different needs and objectives.

Pranayama techniques are numerous and vary in complexity and approach. Some of the best known and practiced are:

  • Nadi Shodhana (alternate nostril breathing): This technique involves alternating inhaling and exhaling through the left and right nostrils, using the fingers to control the flow of air. Nadi Shodhana balances the nervous system, calms the mind and improves concentration.
  • Ujjayi Pranayama (victorious breathing): Also known as ocean breathing, this technique involves a slight contraction of the throat while slowly inhaling and exhaling through the nostrils. Ujjayi Pranayama generates internal heat, purifies the body and mind, and strengthens the respiratory system.
  • Bhastrika Pranayama (bellows breathing): In this technique, rapid and vigorous inhalations and exhalations are performed through the nostrils, creating a bellows movement in the lungs. Bhastrika Pranayama increases vital energy, stimulates digestion and strengthens the immune system.
  • Kapalabhati Pranayama (fire breathing): This technique is characterized by a series of short, vigorous exhalations followed by passive inhalations. Kapalabhati Pranayama helps eliminate toxins from the body, improves circulation, increases energy and stimulates the nervous system.
  • Sitali Pranayama (refreshing breathing): In this technique, you inhale through the mouth, passing air through the tongue rolled into a “U” shape. Then, you exhale through the nostrils. Sitali Pranayama has a cooling and calming effect on the body, relieves thirst and hunger, and balances excess heat.
  • Bhramari Pranayama (bee breathing): This technique involves closing the ears with the fingers and emitting a soft, steady humming sound like that of a bee during exhalation. Bhramari Pranayama calms the mind, reduces stress and anxiety, and improves concentration.

The benefits of Pranayama are numerous and range from improved physical health to greater emotional balance and mental clarity. Among these benefits we can highlight:

  • Improves lung capacity and respiratory efficiency
  • Stimulates blood circulation and tissue oxygenation
  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Balances the nervous system and reduces stress
  • Increases energy and vitality
  • Improves concentration and mental clarity
  • Facilitates meditation and spiritual connection

Despite its many benefits, Pranayama should be practiced with caution and under the guidance of a qualified instructor, especially in case of pregnancy, hypertension, heart or respiratory diseases. It´s always essential to listen to the body and adapt the practice to individual needs.


Los bandhas o bloqueos musculares.

Bandhas play a fundamental role in channeling and controlling the vital energy (prana) in the body.

Bandhas, which in Sanskrit means “closing” or “blocking,” are specific muscular contractions that allow the body to retain and direct the flow of prana in the body. The practice of bandhas helps to improve concentration, strengthen the nervous system, increase vitality and overall health, as well as facilitate the union between body and mind.

There are four main bandhas: Mula Bandha, Uddiyana Bandha, Jalandhara Bandha and Maha Bandha. Each of these bandhas has a specific purpose and effects on the body and mind.

Mula Bandha

Mula Bandha, also known as“root locking,” is performed by contracting and lifting the pelvic floor muscles, including the pubococcygeus muscle. This contraction helps to keep prana in the lower body and prevents its dispersion upward. Mula Bandha is beneficial for strengthening the internal organs and improving sexual health, as well as stabilizing the spine and improving posture.

Performing Mula Bandha strengthens the energy in the first chakra (Muladhara), located at the base of the spine, and establishes a strong connection to the earth, increasing a sense of security and stability.

Uddiyana Bandha

Uddiyana Bandha, or “abdominal locking“, consists of the contraction and lifting of the abdomen towards the spine. This technique is performed on a full exhalation, creating a vacuum in the abdominal cavity and stimulating the flow of prana to the region of the third chakra (Manipura), located in the solar plexus. This bandha is useful for strengthening and toning the internal organs, especially the digestive system, and improving metabolic function.

Uddiyana Bandha also helps to purify energetic blockages in the solar plexus area, resulting in increased self-confidence, personal power and ability to face challenges.

Jalandhara Bandha

Jalandhara Bandha, or “throat locking,” involves contracting the muscles of the throat and neck, and lowering the chin toward the chest. This technique helps to control and regulate the flow of prana in the head and neck area, and is especially useful during pranayama practice.

When performing Jalandhara Bandha, the fifth chakra (Vishuddha), located in the throat, is activated, which helps to improve communication, self-expression and creativity. In addition, Jalandhara Bandha helps to calm the mind and balance the emotions, which facilitates meditation and concentration.

Maha Bandha

Maha Bandha, or “great closure,” is the simultaneous practice of the three previous bandhas (Mula Bandha, Uddiyana Bandha and Jalandhara Bandha). The combination of these closures creates a controlled and powerful flow of energy that runs through the central channel of the body (sushumna nadi), favoring the activation and elevation of the kundalini energy, which is located at the base of the spine.

The practice of Maha Bandha can result in an experience of deep introspection and connection with the inner self. In addition, mastery of this technique can lead to the attainment of siddhis, or supernatural powers and abilities, according to yoga traditions.

The practice of bandhas should be done with caution and under the guidance of an experienced instructor. It´s important not to strain the body or hold the breath excessively, as this can lead to tension and discomfort. The bandhas should be incorporated gradually and consciously into the practice of Hatha Yoga, adapting them to the needs and abilities of each person.


Los mudras son gestos con las manos comunes en el Hatha Yoga.

The term “mudra” comes from Sanskrit and can be translated as “seal” or “gesture“. Mudras have their roots in the Hindu and Buddhist tradition, and have been used for millennia in the practice of yoga, Indian classical dance and religious rituals. Mudras in Hatha Yoga have a specific purpose: to help balance and direct the flow of energy through the body and mind, which in turn promotes concentration, meditation and connection with the inner self.

Mudras are gestures that, through the pressure of certain points on the hands and body, stimulate the flow of energy in the different channels or nadis and chakras (energy centers). According to yoga philosophy, the human body is a microcosm in which the universe is reflected. Each finger of the hand represents a specific element and is associated with a chakra:

  • Thumb: represents the fire element (Agni) and is associated with the solar plexus chakra (Manipura).
  • Index: represents the air element (Vayu) and is associated with the heart chakra (Anahata).
  • Middle: represents the space element (Akasha) and is related to the throat chakra (Vishuddha).
  • Ring: represents the earth element (Prithvi) and is associated with the root chakra (Muladhara).
  • Little finger: represents the water element (Jala) and is related to the sacral chakra (Swadhisthana).

By performing different combinations and positions with the fingers and hands, a communication with the elements and chakras is established, which allows balancing and harmonizing the energy in the body and mind.

Mudras can be practiced at any time and place, although it´s advisable to incorporate them during the practice of yoga and meditation to enhance their effects. Some of the most common mudras in Hatha Yoga include:

  • Gyan Mudra: This mudra symbolizes the union of knowledge and wisdom. It´s performed by bringing the tip of the thumb and index finger together, while keeping the other fingers straight. Gyan Mudra helps to improve concentration, memory and mental clarity.
  • Anjali Mudra: Also known as the gesture of greeting or bowing, this mudra is performed by bringing the palms of the hands together in front of the chest and symbolizes the union of the divine with the human. Anjali Mudra is used to express gratitude, respect and devotion, and promotes humility and inner peace.
  • Prana Mudra: This mudra is performed by touching the tips of the thumb, ring finger and little finger, while keeping the index and middle finger stretched out. Prana Mudra stimulates the flow of vital energy or prana in the body, increases vitality and strengthens the immune system.
  • Apana Mudra: It´s performed by joining the tips of the thumb, ring and middle fingers, while keeping the index and little finger stretched. Apana Mudra helps eliminate toxins and wastes from the body, promotes digestion and relieves gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Vishnu Mudra: Used during the practice of pranayama, this mudra is performed by bending the index and middle fingers towards the palm of the hand, while keeping the ring and little finger stretched. Vishnu Mudra facilitates breath and energy control in the body, promoting calmness and emotional stability.

Regular mudra practice offers numerous benefits for practitioners:

  • Balance and harmonization of energy in the body and mind, contributing to improved physical and emotional health.
  • Stimulation and activation of the different chakras, favoring the connection with the inner self and spiritual growth.
  • Enhancement of concentration and meditation, which facilitates the attainment of states of calm, clarity and inner peace.
  • Strengthening of the immune system and improvement of vitality and energy.
  • Relief from physical and emotional disorders, such as stress, anxiety, depression, insomnia, fatigue and digestive problems.


Shatkarmas are a set of six purification practices mentioned in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and other classical Hatha Yoga texts. These techniques are designed to cleanse and purify the physical and energetic body, helping the practitioner to achieve a state of balance and harmony in their yoga practice and daily life. The shatkarmas also prepare the body and mind for the practice of asana, pranayama and meditation by removing toxins and energetic blockages that can hinder progress in yoga.

The six shatkarmas are as follows:

Neti (nasal cleansing)

This practice involves the use of salt water to cleanse the nostrils. There are two main types of neti: Jala Neti (cleansing with water) and Sutra Neti (cleansing with a cord). Jala Neti is performed using a special container called a neti pot, which is filled with warm water and salt. The mouthpiece of the neti pot is inserted into one nostril, and the head is tilted to one side to allow the water to flow through the nostrils and out the other nostril. The process is then repeated on the opposite side.

Neti Sutra involves carefully inserting a thin, soft cord through one nostril and pulling it out through the mouth. These practices help remove mucus, dust and impurities, improve breathing and reduce nasal congestion.

Dhauti (cleansing of the digestive tract)

Dhauti is a purification practice that focuses on cleansing the digestive tract. It includes several techniques, such as Vamana Dhauti (cleansing the stomach with water), Danda Dhauti (cleansing the esophagus with a soft tube) and Vastra Dhauti (cleansing the stomach with a cloth). These practices help eliminate toxins accumulated in the digestive system, improve gastrointestinal function and strengthen the immune system.

Nauli (massage and toning of the abdominal organs)

Nauli is an advanced technique that involves isolating and contracting the abdominal muscles to massage and tone the internal organs. This practice improves digestion, elimination and the function of the abdominal organs, while strengthening and toning the abdominal muscles.

Basti (colon cleansing)

Basti is a colon cleansing technique that uses water to eliminate toxins and waste accumulated in the large intestine. There are two main types of basti: Jala Basti (water cleansing) and Sthala Basti (dry cleansing). These practices help improve colon function, relieve constipation and prevent digestive diseases.

Kapalabhati (cleansing of the lungs and sinuses)

Kapalabhati is a pranayama technique that involves a series of rapid, forceful exhalations followed by passive inhalations. This practice helps remove mucus and impurities from the lungs and sinuses, improves lung capacity and respiratory function, and increases energy and vitality.

Trataka (cleansing and strengthening of the eyes)

Trataka is a concentration practice that involves focusing the gaze on a fixed point, such as a lit candle, an image or a symbol. This technique helps to cleanse and strengthen the eye muscles, improves visual acuity and mental concentration, and calms the mind.

It´s important to note that some of the shatkarma practices can be intense and challenging, and not all are suitable for all practitioners. In addition, some of these techniques require the supervision and guidance of an experienced yoga teacher to ensure safety and proper execution. Therefore, it´s recommended that beginners familiarize themselves with the basic practices of Hatha Yoga before attempting shatkarmas and seek guidance from a qualified teacher.

Shatkarmas are an integral part of Hatha Yoga, as they help purify and balance the body and mind, preparing them for a deeper and more effective practice. By regularly incorporating these practices into their yoga routine, practitioners can experience greater mental clarity, energy and overall well-being. In addition, shatkarmas can also complement other approaches to health and wellness, such as diet, exercise and meditation, by offering a holistic and systematic approach to purification and health.

How to start practicing Hatha Yoga

Cómo empezar a practicar Hatha Yoga.

Find a teacher

Choosing an instructor or style of Hatha Yoga is a crucial step in getting started. It´s important to research and try different styles and instructors to find the approach that best suits your personal needs and goals. Some factors to consider when selecting an instructor include their training, experience, teaching approach, personality and ability to tailor classes to individual needs. It may also be helpful to attend trial classes or talk to other students to get a clear idea of what to expect from the instructor and the style of yoga he or she teaches.

Preparing for the first class

Clothing suitable for practicing Hatha Yoga should be comfortable, flexible and allow freedom of movement. Tight-fitting but not restrictive clothing is recommended, such as leggings, yoga pants, t-shirts and sleeveless tops. It´s also essential to wear appropriate underwear and, in the case of women, a sports bra that provides support without restricting breathing.

In terms of accessories, a good quality yoga mat that offers cushioning and grip to prevent slips and injuries is essential. It can also be helpful to have other accessories on hand, such as yoga blocks, straps and pads, to facilitate and adapt postures according to individual needs.

Setting realistic goals and expectations

Before beginning to practice Hatha Yoga, it´s important to set realistic goals and expectations for the practice. These goals may include objectives related to health, flexibility, strength, balance, stress reduction or improved concentration. By setting clear and realistic goals, practitioners can stay motivated and focused in their practice over time.

Tips for beginners

Listen to and respect the body

One of the most important tips for beginners in Hatha Yoga is to listen to and respect the body’s signals. It´s essential to pay attention to physical sensations during practice and avoid pushing the body beyond its limits.

If pain or discomfort is felt in a posture, it´s important to modify or set it aside until the body is ready to approach it safely. It´s also essential to learn to distinguish between healthy strain and harmful pain and adjust the practice accordingly.

Be patient and consistent in practice

Patience and consistency are key to success in Yoga practice. Results will not happen overnight, and it can take time and effort to develop strength, flexibility and balance.

It´s important to approach the practice with a mindset of growth and dedication, and to be patient with progress over time. Regular and consistent practice, even for short periods, can generate significant changes in the body and mind over time.

Integrating Hatha Yoga into daily life

To get the maximum benefits from Hatha Yoga, it´s essential to integrate the practice into daily life. This involves not only regular asana and pranayama practice, but also cultivating an attitude of mindfulness, compassion and self-awareness in all areas of life.

how can we integrate Yoga into our daily lives? Here are some guidelines:

  • Establish a daily yoga routine: Practicing asana and pranayama on a regular basis, ideally at the same time every day, can help develop a solid and consistent practice.
  • Cultivate mindfulness: Bringing mindfulness into daily activities, such as eating, walking and working, can improve concentration, reduce stress and foster greater connection with the body and mind.
  • Practice self-observation: Observing patterns of thought, emotions and behaviors without judgment can help develop greater self-awareness and self-understanding.
  • Apply yoga principles in interpersonal relationships: Practicing compassion, empathy and active listening in interactions with others can improve relationships and foster greater connection with others.
  • Adopting a healthy, balanced diet: Diet plays an important role in overall health and well-being, and a nutritious, balanced diet can support the practice of Hatha Yoga and improve energy and vitality.

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